SECTION – A
(Reading) – 30 Marks
Read the passage given below: (20 Marks)
All of Earth’s oceans share one thing in common: plastic pollution. Discarded plastic bags, cups, and bottles make their way into the sea. Today, it seems that no part of the ocean is safe from plastic trash. In recent years, oceanographers have searched in vain for a pristine marine environment. They have found plastic everywhere they have looked. “It is a common global problem, we can’t point to a single habitat or location with no plastic.”
Plastic harms wildlife and introduces dangerous chemicals into marine ecosystems – communities of organisms interacting with their surroundings. Once plastic enters the environment, it lasts a long time. Scientists are working to prevent plastic pollution from entering the sea. When people litter, or when trash is not properly disposed of, things like plastic bags, bottles, straws, foam beverage cups get carried to the sea by winds and waterways. About 80 percent of ocean plastic originates on land. The rest comes from marine industries such as shipping and fishing. In 2015, engineer Jenna Jambeck at the University of Georgia and other researchers calculated that at least 8 million tons of plastic trash is swept into the ocean from coasts every year. That’s the equivalent of a full garbage truck of plastic being dumped into the sea every minute. If current trends in plastic production and disposal continue, that figure will double by 2025. A report published by the World Economic Forum last year predicts that by 2050, ocean plastic will outweigh all the fish in the sea.
In today’s world, plastic is everywhere. It’s found in shoes, clothing, household items, electronics, and more. There are different types of plastics, but one thing they all have in common is that they’re made of polymers – large molecules made up of repeating units. Their chemical structure gives them a lot of advantages: they’re cheap and easy to manufacture, lightweight, water-resistant durable, and can be moulded into nearly any shape.
Unfortunately, some of the properties that make plastics great for consumer goods also make them a problem pollutant. Plastic’s durability comes in part from the fact that unlike paper or wood, it doesn’t biodegrade, or break down naturally. Instead it just fragments, or breaks into tiny pieces over time. These
tiny pieces, known as microplastic, can potentially stick around for hundreds or perhaps even thousands of years.
Another problem with plastics is the other chemicals they contain, like dyes and flame retardants. When plastic isn’t disposed of properly, these additives end up in the environment. Plastic also tends to absorb harmful chemicals from its surroundings. “It’s like a sponge for persistent organic pollutants”. These longlasting, toxic substances include pesticides and industrial chemicals. If plastic absorbs the chemicals, and marine organisms eat the plastic, they may be exposed to higher concentrations of these contaminants.
One of the biggest impacts of plastic pollution is its effect on sea life. Seals, sea turtles, and even whales can become entangled in plastic netting. They can starve to death if the plastic restricts their ability to move or eat. Or the plastic can cut into the animals’ skin, causing wounds that develop severe infections.
Sea turtles eat plastic bags and soda-can rings, which resemble jellyfish, their favourite food. Seabirds eat bottle caps or chunks of foam cups. Plastic pieces may make an animal feel full, so it doesn’t eat enough real food to get the nutrients it needs. Plastic can also block an animal’s digestive system, making it unable to eat.
Plastic and its associated pollutants can even make it into our own food supply. Scientists recently examined fish and shell-fish bought at markets in California and Indonesia. They found plastic in the guts of more than a quarter of samples purchased at both locations. In organisms that people eat whole, such as sardines and oysters, that means we’re eating plastic too. In larger fish, chemicals from plastic may seep into their muscles and other tissues that people consume.
One way to keep the ocean cleaner and healthier is through cleanup efforts. A lot of plastic waste caught in ocean currents eventually washes up on beaches. Removing it can prevent it from blowing out to sea again. Beach clean-up is ocean clean-up.
12. Cleanup efforts can’t reach every corner of the ocean or track down every bit of microplastic. That means it’s critical to cut down on the amount of plastic that reaches the sea in the first place. Scientists are working toward new materials that are safer for the environment. For example, Jambeck and her colleagues are currently testing a new polymer that breaks down more easily in seawater.
13. “Individual actions make a big difference,” says Jambeck. Disposing of plastic properly for recycling or trash collection is a key step. “And simple things like reusable water bottles, mugs, and bags really cut down on waste,” she says. Skipping straws or using paper ones helps too. Ocean pollution can seem overwhelming, but it’s something everyone can help address. This is a problem we can really do something about.
1.1On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, answer each of the questions given below by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) Percentage of ocean plastic that originates from land is:
(ii) In which year did Jenna Jambeck and other researchers calculate that at least 8 million tons of plastic trash is swept into ocean every year?
(iii) Plastic is not biodegradable because it is made up of:
(a) low atomic particles
(b) tiny particles
(c) strong big particles
(d) large molecule polymers
(iv) Sea turtles eat:
(a) plastic bottles
(b) plastic bags and soda-can rings
(c) bottle caps
(d) chunks of foam cups
(v) Scientists bought fish and shell-fish for examination at markets in
(a) China and Russia
(b) Pakistan and Afghanistan
(c) California and Indonesia
(d) Australia and Brazil
1.2 Answer the following questions briefly :
(i) Which articles made of plastic generally cause pollution in the sea?
(ii) How does plastic in oceans harm marine ecosystems?
(iii) How is microplastic formed?
(iv) Why is plastic compared to a sponge?
(v) What is the biggest impact of plastic pollution on sea life?
(vi) How are scientists trying to reduce the plastic pollutants ?
1.3 Answer any three of the following questions in 25-30 words each:
(i) How does plastic waste enter the oceans?
(ii) How is it true to say that plastic is everywhere in today’s world?
(iii) Which property of plastic makes it a problem pollutant?
(iv) What has scientist Jambeck suggested for having cleaner and healthier oceans?
1.4 Pick out the words/phrases from the passage which are similar in meaning to the following:
(i) unsafe (para 2)
(ii) rubbish/junk (as a noun) (para 3)
(iii) shaped/formed (para 5)
2. Read the passage given below:
Getting enough sleep is as important as taking time out to relax. A good night’s sleep is essential for preserving the health of your brain and gives you the best chance to meet the coming day with a razor sharp mind. An average person needs about six to eight hour sleep a night – SIX to eight hour sleep a night – although it is also true that you need slightly less than this, as you grow older-another advantage of aging stress and sleep deprivation often feed on each other, since stress tends to make it harder for you to fall asleep at night and sleep deprivation in itself causes stress.
Eventually, too little sleep can dramatically interfere with the performance of your memory – something you obviously want to prevent. If you are not getting enough sleep, try going to bed 30 to 60 minutes earlier than your normal bed time for a few days. Lie down on the bed and try to relax by dissociating yourself from your daily routine work. This is normally enough to catch up on any sleep deprivation.
If, however, you suffer from insomnia you should seek the advice of your doctor. The chances are it is already affecting your ability to remember and recall information – and if you are struggling to improve your memory scores, this could be at the root of your problem. Prolonged periods of insufficient sleep can deplete your immune system, make you more accident prone and even cause depression – this can also reinforce a more negative outlook on life, which can contribute to your stress burden. The good news is that your memory and mood should automatically improve once you improve your sleep patterns. Tackle your sleep issues and everything else should fall into place.
Because stress management is so essential to maximize your brain power, if you are not in the habit of setting aside time to relax, make it a priority to do so. Even a minute or two of deep breathing can start to work wonders. Often the best ideas and memories can come to you when you are in a state of relaxation as it is during these moments that your brain stores, processes and plays with the information it has received.
Meditation has long been part of religious and spiritual life, specially in Asia. Today, more and more people are adopting it in Western countries also, for its value in developing peace of mind and lowering stress. There is some evidence that regular meditation can have real sleep gain and health benefits particularly in terms of protecting your brain against aging.
2.1 On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. Necessitg muresity percessity
2.2 Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words..
SECTION – B
(Advanced Writing Skills): 30 Marks
3. You are Principal of National Public School, Jaipur. You require a TGT (Maths) for your school. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words for the Situations Vacant’ column of “The National Times’ stating essential and desirable qualifications, experience etc of the candidates.
Arts Club of your school is going to organize a drawing and painting competition. Write a notice in not more than 50 words, to be displayed on the school notice board, inviting students to participate in it. Give all the necessary details. You are Rishabh/Ridhima, Secretary, Arts Club, Sunrise Public School, Gurugram, Haryana.
4. You have realized the necessity of education and financial independence of women for their family, society and in turn for the nation. Write a letter to the Editor, National Times’ highlighting your ideas on the importance of education of women leading to a better status for them. You are Tarun/Taruna, B-7/9, Mall Road, Delhi. (100 – 125 words)
You bought a refrigerator two months ago from Mohan Sales, Ashok Vihar, Bangalore. It has developed certain problems regarding its functioning. Cooling has stopped and it is making a lot of noise. Write a letter of complaint to the Manager asking him for immediate repair/replacement of the same. You are Sachin/Shashi, 61 Pratap Enclave, Bangalore. (100 – 125 words)
5. Write a debate in 150 – 200 words either for or against the motion: ‘Capital Punishment should be abolished’.
Regular practice of yoga is useful in maintaining good health. It is also important for good concentration and peace of mind. You are Shivam/Shabnam. Write a speech in 150 – 200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly of your school, highlighting the impact of yoga in our life.
6. People like to travel to their places of work in their own cars. It is comfortable and they also reach their destinations more or less in time. However, use of private vehicles leads to pollution and traffic jams and it is expensive also. Air-conditioned public buses, which are smaller in size, seating 15 – 20 people and tickets, reasonably priced can be a boon for the people. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on the topic. ‘Need of better Public Transport’. You are Resham/Rehana.
Your school held a two-day Diwali Mela in the school grounds. Various food stalls were put up by the students. On the second day, there was a song and dance programme. Prizes were awarded to the participants. However, there were no fireworks. You are Amit/Amrita. Write a report on the event in 150 – 200 words for your school magazine.
(Literature: Text Books and Long Reading Text)
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
I looked again at her, wan, pale
as a late winter’s moon and felt that old
familiar ache, my childhood’s fear,
but all I said was, see you soon, Amma,
all I did was smile and smile and smile …
(i) Name the poet and the poem.
(ii) What was the poet’s childhood fear?
(iii) What is the poetic device used in lines 1-2 ?
(iv) Explain: ‘late winter’s moon’.
……. The stunted, unlucky heir
Of twisted bones, reciting a father’s gnarled disease,
His lesson, from his desk. At back of the dim class
One unnoted, sweet and young. His eyes live in a dream,
Of squirrel’s game, in tree room, other than this.
(i) Who is the unlucky heir?
(ii) What has he inherited?
(iii) Who is sitting at the back of the dim class?
(iv) How is he different from rest of the class?
8. Answer any four of the following questions in 30 – 40 words each:
(i) How did M. Hamel make his last lesson a special one ? What did he emphasize in it?
(ii) Which two incidents in the life of William Douglas before he was ten years old created an aversion in his mind to water?
(iii) Why did Gandhiji not accept C.F. Andrews’ help during the Champaran movement?
(iv) How did the Tiger King ‘manage to kill’ the hundredth tiger?
(v) What was Hana’s role in Dr. Sadao’s life when he brought home an injured American soldier ?
(vi) We can’t approve of Jack’s attitude towards his wife. Comment.
9. Answer any one of the following in 120 – 150 words :
(i) What kind of life did children living in Seemapuri lead ?
(ii) How did the crofter tempt the peddler to steal his money ? How did it change the peddler’s life?
(iii) What did Sophie tell her father and her brother about her ‘meeting(s)’ with Danny Casey? How did each of them react?
10. Answer any one of the following in 120 – 150 words:
(i) Derry and Mr. Lamb both are victims of physical impairment, but their attitudes towards life are completely different. Elaborate.
(ii) Write a character sketch of the Governor of Oxford Prison based on the story, ‘Evans Tries an O-Level’.
(iii) Why did Bama stroll in the market place instead of hurrying back home? Describe the sights she enjoyed seeing there.
11. Answer any one of the following questions in 120 – 150 words:
Why was Mrs. Hall happy to have a guest at ‘Coach and Horses’ Inn? How did the stranger behave at the inn?
(ii) Describe Mr. Marvel’s meeting with the mariner at Port Stowe. What kind of person was the mariner?
(iii) How did Dunstan Cass meet his end?
(iv) Describe the circumstances under which Silas Marner had to leave Lantern Yard.
12. Answer any one of the following questions in 120 – 150 words:
(i) How does the novel, ‘The Invisible Man highlight the theme of corruption of morals in the absence of social restrictions?
(ii) Compare and contrast Griffin (the invisible man) and Dr. Kemp as scientists and also as members of society.
(iii) George Eliot has portrayed Godfrey as a morally weak character. Comment.
(iv) In ‘Silas Marner’, describe the role of Dolly Winthrop.